A 2003 meta-analysis found that fitness training was likely to improve cognitive functioning in older adults.
I'm reprising this because it is one of Psychological Science's most cited articles as recently as September 1, 2016.
The researchers examined 18 scientific studies and 197 separate effect sizes. They categorized measures of cognitive functioning into four categories as depicted above in the graph, including:
- Executive functioning (the ability to plan, schedule, and generally engage in high-level decision-making).
- Controlled processing (the ability to engage in simple decision-making).
- Visuospatial processing (the ability to transform visual or spatial information).
- Speed processing (the ability to make quick reactions).
As you can see in the graph above, overall the groups that exercised outperformed those who didn't.
- Results were stronger for people 66-80 than for those 55-65 (judged by effect size), although all groups showed significant benefits from exercise.
- Exercise for less than 30 minutes produced very little benefit compared to exercise for 30-60 minutes.
- Females seemed to get more benefits from exercising, but the way comparisons were made makes this conclusion somewhat sketchy.
- Those who engaged in both weight-training and cardio-training had slightly better results than those who did cardio alone.
Colcombe, S., & Kramer, A. F. (2003). Fitness effects on the cognitive function of older adults: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Science, 14, 125-130.
Check out a 2009 blog post I wrote on aging and cognition, and test your knowledge with the quiz!!