Representative Research Citations

The following list of citations from the world’s best scientific refeered journals and publications are representative of the research articles that inform our work. The researchers cited below—although often unknown to practitioners in the learning-and-performance field—are heroes on the front line of learning and educational improvement.


Aggleton, J. P., & Waskett, L. (1999). The ability of odours to serve as state-dependent cues for real-world memories: Can Viking smells aid the recall of Viking experiences? British Journal of Psychology, 90, 1-7.

Allen, G. A., Mahler, W. A., & Estes, W. K. (1969). Effects of recall tests on long-term retention of paired associates. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 463-470.

Alliger, Tannenbaum, Bennett, Traver, & Shotland (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-357.

Anderson, R. C. (1982). Allocation of attention during reading. In A. Flammer & W. Kintsch (Eds.), Discourse processing (pp. 292-305). New York: North-Holland.

Anderson, R. C., & Biddle, W. B. (1975). On asking people questions about what they are reading. In G. H. Bower (Ed.) The psychology of learning and motivation: Advances in research and theory (Vol. 9). New York: Academic Press.

Anderson, R. C., Kulhavy, R. W., & Andre, T. (1971). Feedback procedures in programmed instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62, 148-156.

Anderson, R. C., Kulhavy, R. W., & Andre, T. (1972). Conditions under which feedback facilitates learning from programmed lessons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 186-188.

Antrobus, J. S. & Bertini, M. (1992). The neuropsychology of sleep and dreaming. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Armstrong, T. R. (1970). Feedback and perceptual-motor skill learning: A review of information feedback and manual guidance training techniques. Technical Report No. 25, Human Performance Center, University of Michigan.

Ash, P. (1950). The relative effectiveness of massed versus spaced film presentation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 41, 19-30.

Austin, S. D. M. (1921). A study in logical memory. American Journal of Psychology, 32, 370-403.

Ausubel, D. P. (1966). Early versus delayed review in meaningful learning. Psychology in the Schools, 3, 195-198.

Baddeley, A. D. (1999). Essentials of human memory. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.

Bahrick, H. P. (1979). Maintenance of knowledge: Questions about memory we forgot to ask. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108, 296-308.

Bahrick, H. P., & Hall, L. K. (1991). Preventive and corrective maintenance of access to knowledge. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 5, 1-18.

Bahrick, H. P., & Phelps, E. (1987). Retention of Spanish vocabulary over 8 years. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 344-349.

Bahrick, H. P., & Phelps, E. (1988). The maintenance of marginal knowledge. In U. Neisser & E. Winograd (Eds.), Remembering reconsidered: Ecological and traditional approaches to the study of memory (pp. 178-192). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Bahrick, H. P., Bahrick, L. E., Bahrick, A. S., & Bahrick, P. E. (1993). Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological Science, 4, 316-321.

Balsam, P. D. (1985). The functions of context in learning and performance. In P. D. Balsam & A. Tomie (Eds.) Context and Learning. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Banas, J. A., & Rains, S. A. (2008, November). A meta-analysis of research on inoculation theory. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Communication Association, San Diego, CA.

Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Kulik, C-L. C., Kulik, J. A., & Morgan, M. (1991). The instructional effect of feedback in test-like events. Review of Educational Research, 61, 213-238.

Bangert-Drowns, R. L., Kulik, J. A., & Kulik, C. C. (1988). Effects of frequent classroom testing. Unpublished manuscript, University of Michigan.

Barnett, J. E., & Seefeldt, R. W. (1989). Read something once, why read it again?: Repetitive reading and recall. Journal of Reading Behavior, 21, 351-360.

Baumeister, R. F., Gailliot, M., DeWall, C. N., & Oaten, M. (2006). Self-Regulation and Personality: How Interventions Increase Regulatory Success, and How Depletion Moderates the Effects of Traits on Behavior. Journal of Personality, 74, 1773-1801.

Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 351-355.

Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. (2007). The strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 351-355.

Baumeister, R.F., Heatherton, T.F., & Tice, D.M. (1994). Losing control: How and why people fail at self-regulation. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Bekerian, D. A., & Baddeley, A. D. (1980). Saturation advertising and the repetition effect. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 17-25.

Bell, H. H., & Waag, W. L. (1998). Evaluating the effectiveness of flight simulators for training combat skills: A review. International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 8, 223-242.

Belton, T., & Priyadharshini, E. (2007). Boredom and schooling: A cross-disciplinary exploration. Cambridge Journal of Education, 37, 579-595. doi: 10.1080/03057640701706227

Berger, J., & Milkman, K. L. (2010). Social Transmission and Viral Culture. Retrieved February 9, 2010 from http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/documents/research/Virality.pdf

Berger, S. A., Hall, L. K., & Bahrick, H. P. (1999). Stabilizing access to marginal and submarginal knowledge. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 5, 438-447.

Bjork, E. L., & Bjork, R. A. (1988). On the adaptive aspects of retrieval failure in autobiographical memory. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, R. N. Sykes (Eds). Practical aspects of memory: Current research and issues (Vol. 1: Memory in everyday life) (pp. 283-288). New York: Wiley.

Bjork, R. A. (1988). Retrieval practice and the maintenance of knowledge. In M. M. Gruneberg, P. E. Morris, R. N. Sykes (Eds.), Practical Aspects of Memory: Current Research and Issues, Vol. 1., Memory in Everyday Life (pp. 396-401). NY: Wiley.

Bjork, R. A., & Richardson-Klavehn, A. (1989). On the puzzling relationship between environmental context and human memory. In C. Izawa (Ed.) Current Issues in Cognitive Processes: The Tulane Floweree Symposium on Cognition (pp. 313-344). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bloom, K. C., & Shuell, T. J. (1981). Effects of massed and distributed practice on the learning and retention of second-language vocabulary. Journal of Educational Research, 74, 245-248.

Bouton, M. E. (1993). Context, time, and memory retrieval in the interference paradigms of Pavlovian learning. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 80-99.

Bower, G. H., Monteiro, K. P., and Gilligan, S. G. (1978). Emotional mood as context for learning and recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 17, 573-585.

Bransford, J. D., Franks, J. J., Morris, C. D., & Stein, B. S. (1979). Some general constraints on learning and memory research. In L. S. Cermak & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Levels of processing in human memory (pp. 331-354). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Bromage, B. (1981). Effects of repetition on comprehension of technical prose. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Department of Psychology, Santa Barbara. As cited in Mayer (1983).

Bromage, B. K., & Mayer, R. E. (1986). Quantitative and qualitative effects of repetition on learning from technical text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 271-278.

Bruce, D., & Bahrick, H. P. (1992). Perceptions of past research. American Psychologist, 47, 319-328.

Bruner, J. S. (1963). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Bryan, W. L., & Harter, N. (1897). Studies in the physiology and psychology of the telegraphic language. Psychological Review, 4, 27-53.

Burger, J. M., Messian, N., Patel, S., del Prado, A., & Anderson, C. (2004). What a coincidence! The effects of incidental similarity on compliance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 35-43. doi: 10.1177/0146167203258838

Cain, L. F., & Willey, R. (1939). The effect of spaced learning on the curve of retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 25, 209-214.

Carlson, R. A., & Yaure, R. G. (1990). Practice schedules and the use of cognitive skills in problem solving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 484-496.

Carrier, M., & Pashler, H. (1992). The influence of retrieval on retention. Memory & Cognition, 20, 633-642.

Challis, B. H. (1993). Spacing effects on cued-memory tests depend on level of processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 389-396.

Challis, B. H., & Sidhu, R. (1993). Dissociative effect of massed repetition on implicit and explicit measures of memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 115-127.

Christoff, K., Gordon, A. M., Smallwood, J., Smith, R., & Schooler, J. W. (2009). Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106, 8719-8724. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900234106

Cialdini, R. B. (2009). Influence: Science and Practice, Fifth Edition. Boston: Pearson.

Clariana, R. B., Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1991). The effects of different feedback strategies using computer-administered multiple-choice questions as instruction. Educational Technology Research and Development, 39, 5-17.

Clark, R. E. (1983). Reconsidering research on learning from media. Review of Educational Research, 53, 445-459.

Clark, R. E. (1994). Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42(2), 21-29.

Clawson, D. M., Healy, A. F., Ericsson, K. A., & Bourne, L. E., Jr. (2001). Retention and transfer of morse code reception skill by novices: Part-whole training. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 7(2), 129-142.

Cobb, T. (1997). Cognitive efficiency: Toward a revised theory of media. Educational Technology Research and Development, 45(4), 21-35.

Cousins, R., & Hanley, J. R. (1996). The effect of environmental context on recall and category clustering scores following relational and individual item processing: A test of the outshining hypothesis. Memory, 4, 79-90.

Craik, F. I. M., & Lockhart, R. S. (1972). Levels of processing: A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 11, 671-684.

Crooks, T. J. (1988). The impact of classroom evaluation practices on students. Review of Educational Research, 58, 438-481.

Crowder, R. G. (1976). Principles of learning and memory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cuddy, L. J., & Jacoby, L. L. (1982). When forgetting helps memory: An analysis of repetition effects. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 21, 451-467.

Cull, W. L. (2000). Untangling the benefits of multiple study opportunities and repeated testing for cued recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 14, 215-235.

Cull, W. L., Shaughnessy, J. J., & Zechmeister, E. B. (1996). Expanding understanding of the expanding-pattern-of-retrieval mnemonic toward confidence in applicability. Journal of Experimental Psychology, Applied, 2, 365-378.

d’Ydewalle, G. D., Swerts, A., & De Corte, E. (1983). Study time and test performance as a function of test expectations. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 55-67.

Dalton, P. (1993). The role of stimulus familiarity in context-dependent recognition. Memory & Cognition, 21, 223-234.

Davies, G. (1986). Context effects in episodic memory: A review. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 6, 157-174.

Dellarosa, D., & Bourne, Jr., L. E. (1985). Surface form and the spacing effect. Memory & Cognition, 13, 529-537.

Dempster, F. N. (1987a). Effects of variable encoding and spaced presentations on vocabulary learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 162-170.

Dempster, F. N. (1987b). Time and the production of classroom learning: Discerning implications from basic research. Educational Psychologist, 22, 1-21.

Dempster, F. N. (1988). The spacing effect: A case study in the failure to apply the results of psychological research. American Psychologist, 43, 627-634.

Dempster, F. N. (1989). Spacing effects and their implications for theory and practice. Educational Psychology Review, 1, 309-330.

Dempster, F. N. (1996). Distributing and managing the conditions of encoding and practice. In E. L. Bjork & R. A. Bjork (Eds.) Memory (pp. 317-344). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Dempster, F. N., & Farris, R. (1990). The spacing effect: Research and practice. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 23, 97-101.

Dick, W., & Carey, L. (1996). The Systematic Design of Instruction. NY: HarperCollins.

Doane, S., Sohn, Y. W., & Schreiber, B. (1999). The role of processing strategies in the acquisition and transfer of a cognitive skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 25(5), 1390-1410.

Drachman, D., DeCarufel, A., & Insko, C. A. (1978). The extra credit effect in interpersonal attraction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 458-465. doi: 10.1016/0022-1031(78)90042-2

Driskell, J. E., Willis, R. P., & Copper, C. (1992). Effect of overlearning on retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77, 615-622.

Dulsky, S. G. (1935). The effect of a change of background on recall and relearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 725-740.

Dumay, N., & Gaskell, M. G. (2007). Sleep-associated changes in the mental representation of spoken words. Psychological Science, 18, 35-39.

Durgunoğlu, A. Y., & Roediger, III, H. L. (1987). Test differences in accessing bilingual memory. Journal of Memory and Language, 26, 377-391.

Durgunoğlu, A. Y., Mir, M., & Ariño-Martí, S. (1993). Effects of repeated readings on bilingual and monolingual memory for text. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18, 294-317.

Ebbinghaus, H. (1885/1913). Memory: A contribution to experimental psychology, (Translated by H. A. Ruger and C. E. Bussenius). New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. (Also available 1964 and 1987, New York: Dover Publications. Original published in 1885).

Eich, E. (1985). Context, memory, and integrated item/context imagery. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 764-770.

Eich, E. (1995). Mood as a mediator of place dependent memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 124(3), 293-308.

Eich, J. E. (1980). The cue dependent nature of state dependent retrieval. Memory and Cognition, 8, 157-173.

Elmes, D. G., Dye, C. J., & Herdelin, N. J. (1983). What is the role of affect in the spacing effect? Memory & Cognition, 11, 144-151.

English, R. A., & Kinzer, J. R. (1966). The effect of immediate and delayed feedback on retention of subject matter. Psychology in the Schools, 3, 143-147.

Ericsson, K. A. (2006). The Influence of Experience and Deliberate Practice on the Development of Superior Expert Performance. In Ericsson, K. Anders (Ed); Charness, Neil (Ed); Feltovich, Paul J. (Ed); Hoffman, Robert R. (Ed), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance. (pp. 683-703). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.

Ericsson, K. A. (2009). Enhancing the development of professional performance: Implications from the study of deliberate practice. In Ericsson, K. Anders (Ed), Development of professional expertise: Toward measurement of expert performance and design of optimal learning environments. (pp. 405-431). New York, NY, US: Cambridge University Press.

Ericsson, K. A., & Charness, N. (1994). Expert performance: Its structure and acquisition. American Psychologist, 49, 725-774.

Ericsson, K. A., Krampe, R. T., & Tesch-Römer, C. (1993). The role of deliberate practice in the acquisition of expert performance. Psychological Review, 100, 363-406.

Fang, X., Singh, S., & Ahluwalia, R. (2007). An examination of different explanations for the mere exposure effect. Journal of Consumer Research, 34, 97-103. doi: 10.1086/513050

Fendrich, D. W., Healy, A. F., & Bourne, Jr., L. E. (1991). Long-term repetition effects for motoric and perceptual procedures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17, 137-151.

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Frase, L. T. (1967). Learning from prose material: Length of passage, knowledge of results, and position of questions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 266-272.

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Gailliot, M. T., & Baumeister, R. F. (2007). The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 303-327.

Gailliot, M. T., Baumeister, R. F., DeWall, C. N., Maner, J. K., Plant, E. A., Tice, D. M., Brewer, L. E., & Schmeichel, B. J. (2007). Self-control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 325-336.

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